Colour vision deficiency is the decreased ability to see the colour or differences in the colours.
The most common cause of colour blindness is an inherited fault in the development of one or more of three sets of colour sensing cones in the eye . Males are more likely to be colour blind than females. Incidence in male is 1 in 12 men and in female 1 in 200 females as the genes responsible for the most common forms of colour blindness are on “X” chromosome .
Diagnosis is done with the ISHIHARA COLOUR CHART TEST .
AQUIRED CAUSES OF COLOUR BLINDNESS —-
No cure for hereditary or genetic colour blindness. If you become aware of a colour deficiency early enough in life you may be a
COLOUR BLINDNESSble to compensate by training for one of the many careers to see in a full range of colour.
Special lenses are available to enhance the colour perception.
How can you detect colour blindness by yourself?
WHAT IS SQUINT: Squint or strabismus is a condition in which the visual axes of the eyes are not parallel and the eyes appear to be looking in different directions, or simply, crossed eyes.
Inward deviation of the eye or eyes is called esotropia and outward deviation is called exotropia. There are various causative factors like genetic or hereditary, neurological, pre-maturity, high spectacle number, or injury (to the head or eyes). No two patients with squint are exactly alike and each patient requires a thorough evaluation and proper treatment by a specialist.
There are several myths related to the perception and treatment of squint especially in children, in whom early evaluation and treatment is crucial. The following is an attempt to state the facts from a scientific perspective:
MYTH 1: SQUINT IN SMALL CHILDREN GOES OFF ON ITS OWN:
FACT : Except in very rare cases, squint does not disappear on its own. This is a popular belief harbored by many parents and re-inforced by some doctors too. This leads to unnecessary delay in treatment and consequently permanent loss of vision in one eye in the child. Squint should be evaluated as soon as diagnosed as only timely intervention can preserve vision and 3 D vision in the child. So remember, NO ‘WAIT AND WATCH’!
MYTH 2: SQUINT IS JUST A COSMETIC PROBLEM
FACT: In addition to it being a cosmetic problem, it more importantly is a functional problem as every day of untreated squint means compromise of the full visual potential in the child. Early treatment of squint is not only to straighten the eyes for cosmetic reasons, but to prevent deterioration of vision and binocularity. Binocularity is the condition in which both eyes work together to achieve 3 dimensional vision and depth perception. This has implications in many day to day activities like driving, appreciating 3 D movies, as also in many careers like aviation, military, stereoscopic surgery etc. Lack of binocularity reduces the field of vision and renders the patient more susceptible to injuries. A patient with squint is actually looking at the world with only one eye at a time, hence the vision of the squinting eye can get severely and permanently reduced leading to a lazy eye. Squint can also be a manifestation of serious underlying disease in the eye, like a tumour, cataract or infection, and hence needs prompt attention.
MYTH 3: THERE IS NO TREAMENT FOR SQUINT:
FACT: Depending on the type of squint, there are many treatment options like glasses, eye patching in which lazy eye is made to work more as compared to normal eye, vision therapy exercises like synaptophore, prisms and surgery. Any one or a combination of these treatment modalities may have to be used depending upon the case. Treatment of squint is long term and yield successful results, so commitment and co operation of the parents is as important as the doctor’s skill. Squint can be treated at any age, even in adults, but treatment done in childhood gives the best results.
MYTH 4: SQUINT SURGERY WILL CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE EYE
FACT: Squint surgery is one of the safest eye surgeries as it is extraocular (does not involve opening or entering the eye like in cataract surgery). Only the muscles on the white portion of the eye are tightened or loosened and there is no damage to vision or permanent scar visible after surgery.
MYTH 5: SQUINT WILL RECUR AFTER SURGERY
FACT: This is more of a fear in parents’ minds which prevents them from going in for the surgery. With proper pre operative evaluation and operative technique, the chances of recurrence in childhood squint are very less. More harm will be caused by not doing the surgery than the recurrence if it occurs at all. Recurrence after surgery may occur after many years and there are non surgical and surgical options to treat that as well.
MYTH 6: MY CHILD IS TOO SMALL TO UNDERGO SURGERY
FACT: The earlier your child is treated for squint, be it with glasses or surgery, the better results you will get. Now a days, general anaesthesia techniques are very safe, and the surgery itself carries hardly any risk. So no child is too young for surgery if surgery is indicated. Remember that timing is critical for proper visual development, so do not delay surgery if it is required for your child’s benefit.
In conclusion, parents and doctors have to work hand in hand and take adequate and early measures to prevent avoidable blindness or visual impairment caused due to squint.
HEALTHY HABITS FOR HEALTHY EYES
Food is the best medicine for any problem, and also it prevents us from many diseases. A healthy diet leads to healthy body. Same apply your precious eyes. There are certain habits which helps to keep your eyes healthy and young for longer period and effect of ageing can be prolonged.
A well-balanced diet also keeps you away from obesity and related diseases like Type II Diabetes Mellitus which is the leading cause of blindness in adults.
It makes you more likely to develop cataract, damage to the optic nerve (which sends signals to brain) and macular degeneration which affects retina.So restrict your smoking habits for healthy eyes and diseases free body
3. USE SAFETY EYEWEAR-
If you use hazardous or air-borne materials on the job, or at home, wear safety goggles. Sports like cricket and ice hockey lead to eye injuries, hence wear eye protection like helmets, protective face masks, sports goggles.
4. WEAR SUNGLASSES-
The pair of shades will help protect your eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays. Too much UV exposure increases chances of cataract and macular degeneration. Wrap around lenses help to protect eyes from the sides as well. Polarised lenses reduce glare while driving. Wearing sunglasses over contact lenses is also recommended.
Long hours on the computer can cause eyestrain, blurring of vision, dry eyes, focussing problems, headache, neck and back pain.
To Avoid your eyes from getting tired while working on PC, Laptops:-
Everyone, including children need at least a one yearly routine eye examination to detect and treat any eye issues at an early stage.
It helps to protect your sight and lets you see better!!
It is a recurrent, bilateral, allergic inflammation of conjunctiva, affecting children having a periodic seasonal incidence. It is due to few allergens like grass pollens.
Those who are affected by this allergy mostly have personal / family history of allergic disorders like asthma, hay fever eczema, and eosinophilia.
More common in children. Boys are affected more. More common in summer, so it is also called as warm weather conjunctivitis. More common in tropic less in temperature zone & very rare in cold climate
Usually upper part of conjunctiva is more affected.
Symptoms: Stingy Discharge, Burning & itching sensation in eyes, watering, intolerance to bright light. Heaviness redness during summer.
How long does the allergy lasts: Clinical course of disease is self-limiting & usually burns out in 5- 10 days.
Prevention & Management: Wear dark goggles to prevent photophobia (problem with sunlight)
Cold compresses & ice packs having soothing affect.
Change of place from hot to cold climate recommended
Topical steroid and antiallergic eye drops under your ophthalmologist guidance will be effective.
PRIME CAUSE – NOT DRINKING ENOUGH WATER
Dehydration occurs when the body does not have enough fluid. As a critical element of the body, water is needed for various organs to function. When the body is not adequately hydrated, organs, including the eyes, suffer.
Dehydration is when more water leaves the body than enters the body. This typically happens when people stop drinking water or lose large amounts of fluid. Fluid loss occurs in daily bodily functions such as sweat, urination and bowel movements. Extreme heat, vomiting, diarhoea, alcohol and even diabetes increase the risk of dehydration.
Symptoms of dehydration
The body’s initial response to a loss of fluid is to preserve the amount of fluid still in the body by conserving water. This leads to various symptoms of dehydration including thirst and dry mouth, decreased urine output, muscle cramps, headache, light-headedness, sleepiness and a lack of tear production. When the eyes stop producing tears, they are no longer properly lubricated, which can lead to dry eye, eye strain and vision problems.
Dry eye occurs when there are insufficient tears to nourish the eye, and tears are necessary for providing clear vision. Tears wash away foreign matter in the eye and help reduce the risk of eye infections. Symptoms of dry eyes include irritation, excess watering, blurred vision and feeling foreign matter in the eye. As a symptom of dehydration, the best treatment for dry eye is rehydrating by drinking plenty of water. Eye drops can also help alleviate the symptoms by lubricating the eye and washing away foreign materials.
Tired eyes, blurred vision, headaches and double vision are all symptoms of eye strain. As with dry eye, eye strain caused by dehydration can result when the eye is not properly lubricated. Additionally, eye strain is also caused by concentrating on visual tasks or while using a digital device for an extended period of time. If caused by dehydration, drinking plenty of water will help flush out salt in the body and properly hydrate your eyes to help reduce eye strain. Resting the eye by blinking or shutting the eye will also help alleviate eye strain.
How to manage dehydration, to help ease the pain of digital eye strain.
You can prevent dehydration by drinking plenty of water throughout the day. It is especially important to intake fluid before, during and after exercise to replenish the water lost through sweating. Other tips for preventing dehydration include removing excess salt from your diet and reducing intake of alcohol, caffeine and high-protein foods.
How does Ultra violet (UV) rays affect my vision??
Sunlight is major source of UV rays.
There are 2 types of UV rays namely UV-A and UV-B. Over time UV rays may cause number of eye problems.
can hurt your central vision. It can damage the macula, a part of the retina at the back of your eye.
The front part of your eye (the cornea and the lens) absorbs most UV-B rays, but these rays may cause even more damage to your eyes than UV-A rays
UV rays may lead to macular degeneration, a leading cause of vision loss.
UV rays, especially UV-B rays, may also cause some kinds of cataracts. A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s natural lens, the part of the eye that focuses the light we see.
Another UV-related problem is a growth called pterygium. This growth begins on the white of the eye and may involve the cornea. Eventually, the growth may block vision. It is more common in people who work outside in the sun and wind.
Skin cancer around the eyelids is also linked to prolonged UV exposure.
Corneal sunburn, called photokeratitis, is the result of high short-term exposure to UV-B rays. Long hours at the beach or skiing without proper eye protection can cause this problem. It can be very painful and may cause temporary vision loss.
How to protect your eyes from UV rays
LASIK procedure is helpful in living a life independent of glasses and contact lenses.
Most of the risk can be avoided by proper selection of individual for Lasik.
It’s extremely rare to get complication with significant visual loss after Lasik. The advancement in technology has reduced rate of complications drastically. This includes Bladeless ReLex SMILE, Femto Laser (Bladeless Lasik) technology and new age Microkeratomes (Blade Lasik).
Risk and complications of Lasik can be treated successfully by medical treatment or minor touch up procedures in most of the cases.
Treatment of Lasik Risks and Lasik complications
By understanding few simple yet significant points you will be able to decide whether the Lasik surgery is ideal for you
Once all these tests results are favourable and positive one can go to next level i.e. surgery.
LIMITATIONS OF LASIK PROCEDURE:-
LASIK procedure is widely used procedure across the globe to provide correction of number and it is acceptable by the WHO and other governments like USA FDA.
It is successful hence it is so popular among all the age groups.
Taking expert’s guidance and choosing the best doctor will make your DREAM to see without specs even more exciting and memorable.
LASIK treatment is widely known to make you independent from spectacle and helps you to do your work day in and day our without worrying about your specs or contact lenses.
Means after LASIK you can go for any kind of sport including wrestling, swimming etc and you really don’t need glasses or contact lens to stop you.
LASIK or Laser Correction is so popular as it has and is still benefitting huge population across the globe and is very easy way to get spectacle independence.
Before deciding for LASIK surgery it is important to understand that LASIK has various types and among all the available option which is best for your eyes.
Not all LASER correction option is suitable to every eye. You need to undergo certain corneal testing which ophthalmologist uses to guide you about the surgery which he thinks best for your eyes with the desired result.
For further understanding in opting LASIK following detail will help you to understand what are the various options available with their advantages and limitations.
|ReLEx SMILE||BLADELESS and FLAPLESS
2 mm incision surgery hence least post operative care
Inadvertent eye rubbing is allowed
Very fast recovery time
Patient having Less corneal thickness can also be treated
Plus number (Hyperopia) at present (May 2016)
|Bladeless Femto Customvue Lasik||Very precise, bladeless flap hence recovery is fast. Treats astigmatism/ high cylindrical power and plus number
|Flap precautions are to be taken care like no rubbing till flap is stable.|
|Customvue Blade Lasik||Gives personalized treatment to eye by treating highest degree of corneal abnormality (abbrations).
Very precise as it has IRIS REGISTRATION technology which register your eye and notice even a micro movement hence laser firing is on target area always.
|Not recommended when corneal thickness is less
Flap precautions are to be taken care like no rubbing till flap is stable.
|Photo refractive keratotomy
|When the shape of cornea is not normal. No flap. Variants – LASEK, Epi-Lasik, ASA||Work resume after 15 days. return of some spectacle number is possible. Eye drops used for longer duration|
|Implantable Contact Lens (ICL)||When the eye power is extremely high and none of the procedure can be done
When thickness of cornea is less
Increase quality as well as quantity of vision
|More Invasive than Relex Smile or Lasik|
Many people faces problem of dryness in eyes. It can be temporary or chronic and progressive.
The problem of dry eyes is specific depending upon the cause and severity of condition. It is easy to deal and manage the dry eyes problem just by understanding the cause behind it.
Based on this the treatment for dry eyes is given. Mainly artificial tears or lubricating drops are widely used for treating mild type of dryness like continuous work on computer,reading etc.
Natural ways to avoid dry eyes problem are: